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Fire Development Stages
CFBT for ARFF
Small Scale Multicompartment
Small Scale Single Compartment
Kaizen (改善 - Continuous Improvement
“If you wish to control a problem, you must know more about the problem than anyone else and if you need to know more about the problem, you must coin a terminology, a lexicon, that allows you to understand it and not use imperial rhetoric.”
Sir Eyre Massey Shaw, 1876
Station Officer Shan Raffel has served as a career firefighter in Brisbane since 1983. In the early 1990's, he began researching the innovative approach adopted by the Swedish Fire Service in the mid 1980's. After the death of 2 colleagues in 1994 and the serious injury of 2 others from the effects of extreme fire behaviour in 1996, he submitted a proposal to study the latest methods of teaching Firefighters how to recognise and safely deal with Flashover, Backdraught and other Fire Phoneme. As a result of this proposal, he was sent to the United Kingdom and Sweden to study the teaching methods and training facilities. During the next few years he gained support and acceptance for these live saving methods in Australia.
Compartment Fire Behaviour Training
After implementing the first nationally recognised CFBT training program in Australia in 1998, he went on to work for 12 months with a Swedish Fire Engineer in 1999 to design the class A fire training structures for the Live Fire Training Academy in Queensland. This provided a fantastic learning opportunity that gave insight into the scientific explanations and the practical techniques. This experience merged his operational experiences with the scientific knowledge gained through the Institution of Fire Engineers examinations. This time frame also provided the rare opportunity to conduct a large number of research and training fires in acquired structures. which provided validation and refinement to the newly adopted techniques and tactics.
Operational Focus and Passion
Returning to full time operational duties in 2000 has allowed him to apply the techniques and tactics in the real world. He has assisted numerous fire services in Australia in the development of their training facilities and teaching materials. He has lectured at numerous conferences and delivered practical training in various locations around the world. His papers have been translated into several languages.
Shan has taken a keen interest in Fire Fighting Tactics, International Fire and Rescue Service Operations and Humanitarian Response. Through his long term involvement in the Institution of Fire Engineers he has been able to participate in a number of International Training programs and major events such as the NATO "Exercise Iron Sword" in Norway in 2005.
In 2010 he conducted research into planning, preparation and response to emergencies in tunnels as part of a Churchill Fellowship. With the support of the Queensland Fire and Rescue Service, the ten week fellowship involved visits to fire services, counter disaster organizations and training centres in the USA, Canada, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia and Switzerland. In subsequent years he has been privileged to be provided with leave to participate in many international projects, seminars and workshops.
His national and international awards include the Australian Fire Service Medal (AFSM), the “Commendation for Brave Conduct” and Companion Fellow of the Institution of Fire Engineers (CFIFireE).
Institution of Fire Engineers
He is a strong supporter of the Institution Fire Engineers which he describes as "a truly International multi disciplinary fraternity that brings together people from every aspect of Fire Engineering, Safety and Protection." He has held numerous state, national and international positions such as National Secretary, National President and representative to the International General Assembly.
The Brisbane Region of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Service
Covering an area of approximately 5160 square kilometres, with a population of 1,763,131 residents, Brisbane it is the third largest and fastest growing city in Australia. There are 36 urban fire stations in the Brisbane Region and an operational staff of almost 800 full-time and 125 auxiliary fire officers. Risks include the largest Port in Australia, a large number of commercial and residential High Rise, all types of industry, a wide variety of residential dwellings and a significant iZone area.
The State of Queensland, Australia
In 2010, Queensland’s population reached 4.5 million with over 3 million people living in South-East Queensland. (Australian Government).This is a very low overall population density when you consider that the state of Queensland has a land area of 1,852,642 km2, which is approximately 8 times the size of the British Isles, or the combined area of Spain, Germany, France and Italy. This vast area is protected by approximately 5000 QFES full-time and part-time (auxiliary) firefighters to staff its more than 240 urban fire and rescue stations, with approximately 35000 rural volunteer firefighters crewing the State's almost 2000 rural fire brigades. The Queensland Fire and Emergency Service is the 3rd largest Fire Service in the world by area. This combination of vast areas to protect from a wide range of significant natural disasters has led to the development of an extremely versatile and interoperable emergency services.
GENERAL JOURNAL ARTICLES
Realistic Training - Why Bother. IFIW 2013 Frankfurt. Paper
Realistic Training - an optional extra? - Paper.
There is no substitute for realistic training for workers engaged in dangerous occupations. Core Skill or Optional Extra? In my opinion, for an operational firefighter, there is no skill more central to the principle of ZEROharm, than the ability to accurately read a fire and assess the risks. It is essential to firefighter safety and forms the foundation for an efficient fire attack plan. Like any other core skill it must be repeated until a high level of proficiency is achieved, and then maintained by regular refresher training. What do you think?
Europe's Most Realistic Training Centre? - International Fire Professional Journal January 2014
On 14 June 2013 the Frankfurt Fire Department officially opened its new state of the art training centre. The Feuerwehr-und Rettungstrainingscenter (Fire and Rescue Training Centre), Frankfurt am Main (FRTC) is the culmination of many years of research and 2 years of construction which comes with a price tag of nearly 23 million euros. It is conveniently located on a 20,000 square metre block at the rear of the Emergency and Rescue Center (BKRZ) not far from the centre of the city of Frankfurt.
Critical Flow Rates for compartment fires (Slideshow)
This is the powerpoint presentation the was delivered on 4 October 2007 at the 2007 IFE NZ Emergency Management Conference in Wellington.
Critical Flow Rates for compartment fires (Paper)
The supporting paper for 2007 Emergency Management Conference, Keeping Pace: Technology and Modern Emergency Management
Tactical Flow Rates for Fire Attack
The introduction of the "Sliding Scale Approach 4 – 8 - 12"
I believe that there needs to be a more practical and balanced guide to selecting the tactical flow rate. I believe that the sliding scale model provides a more practical guide that uses the mode of attack as part of the guide for initial attack flow. At the lower end of the offensive mode of attack, a flow rate of 4 lpm/m2 should be considered the minimal tactical flow rate. As we approach the marginal mode of attack, we should be looking at a minimum of 8 lpm/m2. As we move toward the upper end of the defensive mode of attack, we should be looking at flow rates of 12 to 13 lpm/m2
Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) Evaluation Project (Fire Australia Journal 2011)
The Queensland Fire and Rescue Service was the first Fire Service in Australia to fully integrate Compressed Air Foams Systems into the Urban context in early 2009 . With the assistance of the ACT Fire Service (Canberra) they began an evaluation project that has been based on extensive international research, capturing local experience and practical research at the state live fire training academy.
Newsletters written as part of the QFRS CAFS Evaluation Project
Newsletter 1 - Project Overview
Newsletter 2 - What is CAFS
Newsletter 3 - Training the Trainers
Newsletter 4 - QFRS Type 4 Urban CAFS Pumper Configuration
Newsletter 5 - Live Fire Testing
Newsletter 6 - Operational evaluation
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO TUNNELS
Tunnel Safety and Fire Protection - Innovations in safety through the life cycle. Melbourne 25 - 26 February 2015
Tunnel and Life Safety - a cooperative approach between contractors and emergency services during construction and operation. Presemntation, Shan Raffel
International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 12 - 14 March 2014 Marseille, France
Fire Fighting Operations in Modern Road Tunnels: An Australasian Perspective. Ed Caridge and Shan Raffel
Fire Fighting Operation in Modern Road Tunnels: An Australasian Perspective. Presentation Shan Raffel
Australian Tunnelling puts Fire Safety First - International Fire Professional January 2013
Australia is following international trends in road and rail traffic management for major cities by including tunnels as part of the overall traffic management plan. Nowhere is this more apparent than in Brisbane which is the capital of the “SunshineState” of Queensland. Only 4 years ago, Brisbane had very few tunnels of any significance. On 15 March 2010, Australia’s largest road tunnel, the 4.8 km “Clem7”, opened to traffic in Brisbane. This milestone for tunnelling in Australia was recently eclipsed with the opening of Brisbane's’ 5.3 km Airport Link Tunnel. In addition, a third major road tunnel (4.6 km), the “Legacy Way” is currently under construction.
Understanding Fire Behaviour - Global Fire research
Do you know the difference between wet steam and dry steam? This may seem like a strange link, but the knowledge hidden here will help the inquiring mind to understang the difference betweem 3D Gas-Cooling and Indirect Entinguishing
Flammability Limits from Wikipedia Good basic explanation of the fundamentals of flammable mixtures.
COOL FIREFIGHTING TOOLS
STRATEGY AND TACTICS
Fire: an evil enemy, or a logical element you can beat with knowledge, skill and courage?
I don’t view fire as "the enemy". Fire can be very beneficial or very dangerous. But it is a chemical reaction that follows the laws of science. It is not an evil intelligence that we must "battle against". It has no brains or intent. It follows the laws of nature and if we can understand the factors associated with fire development we have a much better chance of getting ahead of it, and, therefore controlling it. This may not sound very glamorous or heroic. Personally I take pride in knowing all I can about fire so that I can control it with the maximum efficiency and safety. I don’t need to view myself as a soldier battling an intelligent, powerful and evil enemy that has attacked defenceless civilians. I view myself as a "civilian" that is tasked with an important role in society. While I face a high risk at times, I don’t see myself as being somehow better than a plumber or electrician or any other member of society. If I recall correctly, one of the professions facing the highest risk of being killed at work is the construction worker. When a construction worker is killed at work do we just accept that they are heroes killed in the line of duty? On the contrary, the law views them as victims of an industrial accident and does not accept that their death was inevitable simply because they work in a high risk occupation.